The Edo Language: An Enthralling History and Interesting Language Uses!

The Edo Language: An Enthralling History and Interesting Language Uses!

Edo, also known as Bini, is part of the Niger-Congo language family and is spoken primarily in Edo State, Nigeria, notably in the capital of Edo State, Benin City. The language is spoken by 1.64 million people in Nigeria and globally by an estimated 1,641,670 speakers, by Edo people in the UK, the US, and Canada.


In addition to this, the Edo language is spoken throughout Nigerian society. It is taught in primary and secondary schools and used in different media such as television and radio. The Edo language is mainly used as a spoken or oral language, although it is used as a written language in textbooks, dictionaries, historical texts, and for a translation of the Bible. Edo is also the de facto language of provincial identity spoken in the Edo, Delta, and Ondo states.


Linguistic Features of the Edo Language

The Edo language is written using a Latin script and alphabet and utilises a subject-verb-object (SVO) word order. For instance, the sentence “Uyi is reading a book”, would be translated as “Uyi ti` Ebe” (Ebe is the Edo word for “book”). However, an object-subject-verb (OSV) is used in the Edo language for emphasis.


The alphabet of the Edo language is comprised of 24 vowels (a/e/ẹ/i/o/ọ/u) and consonants. Verbs in the Edo language start with a consonant, and often end using a vowel. For example, the verb “ka” (“to count”) and the verb “tue” (“to pour”). Also, pitch and intonation are a crucial aspect of the Edo language. High and low tones are indicated using different marks, such as “òwè” and “ówé”. The accents in the word “òwè” indicate a low intonation, which change the meaning of the word to “leg”. The same word pronounced using different accents, “ówé”, which indicates a high intonation, instead means “broom”.


The Edo language has influenced the Portuguese creole language spoken in the Gulf of Guinea, such as São Tomé, Príncipe, Annobon, and Angolar Creole. According to a study at the University of St Andrews, the Edo language is the key African language that has been used in the foundation of the Portuguese creole languages spoken in Guinea. In fact, 35% of words used in São Tomé Creole and 65% of words used in Príncipe Creole derive from the Edo language. The influence of Edo on the Gulf of Guinea creole languages can be observed in the use of article agglutination, which is used in Edo in the form of prefixes attached to nouns.


Key phrases in Edo


Ób’ókhían” – Welcome

Kóyo” – Hello

Vbèè óye hé?” – How are you?

Ób’ówie” – Good morning

Ób’ávàn” – Good afternoon

Ób’ ótà” – Good evening

Ù rú èsé” – Thank you


The History of the Edo Language

The Edo language remains true to its traditional routes to this day. The Benin kingdom is thought to have been established in the eight century, when a group of migrants relocated from the Nile river to Nigeria. Much of the rich cultural history derives from political and religious status within the kingdom of Benin. As more and more migrants began to come into Nigeria, the kingdom flourished, with the birth of the Edo language.  Although the language has developed since the early days of the formation of the kingdom, the Edo people are very set in the ways of tradition.


The Edo People

Sometimes known as the Benin people, the Edo group of people are most commonly found in southern Nigeria. In terms of faith, the majority of Edo people are Christian, however a small number are Muslim. Most of the Edo live in very small settlements, such as towns and hamlets. Within these settings, the people live traditionally, keeping livestock and crops whilst living off the land.


Young male residents in each village are divided into age categories, with the younger groups attending school. Teenage males are typically workers, contributing to the community by completing maintenance jobs such as general cleaning of the outdoor areas. Once they reach adult status, they are expected to take on larger jobs like building and roofing.


Another interesting fact to note about Edo life is the presence of a village headsman. Typically, this will be the oldest man in the village- he will also serve as the community priest. The Edo people respect this figure highly, as they would a king.


In Conclusion 

Edo is a language of rich cultural background and influence. From what began as a small settlement, it has grown into a widely spoken tongue with millions of speakers, not just those of Nigeria but worldwide. As the language begins to develop, sacred traditions are still upheld within the communities. With the extensive Edo population thriving and the spread of the language, there is a definite need for interpretation and translation. Should you require an Edo interpreter or translator, visit Crystal Clear Translation for a quote.

What Are The Top Pros and Cons of Using Language Learning Apps?

What Are The Top Pros and Cons of Using Language Learning Apps?

(Written by Callum Madle) 

With user numbers of language learning apps like Duolingo up 67% globally and up 132% in the UK in the last few years, more and more people are accessing the chance to learn a language through an app. Unlike more traditional language learning methods, language learning apps are more easily accessible, flexible, and quite a lot cheaper compared to their offline equivalents. But can language learning through an app really provide the same experience and benefits that come with traditional language classes? What other disadvantages might language learning apps present? Let’s find out!


What are the pros of language learning apps?


Flexible schedules

Rather than worrying about being able to make time for an in-person or online language class, mobile apps provide their users with a lot more flexibility. With a class that relies on a teacher at a specific set time, you might have to make time in your schedule which could impact on your downtime. On the other hand, when using an app, there aren’t these same problems, as you can simply open the app and complete a language learning activity for 10-15 minutes in your own time and move on with the rest of your day. In addition to this, you are in control of what you learn via an app, whereas a teacher sets the curriculum, and you would not have the same level of control.


Apps can be used anywhere

Unlike in-person or online classes, a language learner can use their app wherever they like! You could be at home, on your break at work, maybe even in the queue at the shops. As long as you have decent connection to the internet, you can access a language learning app wherever you want to and at whatever time you like, removing a lot of the time pressures that can arise from equivalent language learning classes.


Using an app is cheaper

Although some apps like Babbel are only free for a limited time, there are completely free versions of apps like Duolingo and Busuu. Even when you might have to pay to use a language learning app, the price of a premium version is significantly cheaper than an in-person language class. If pricing is a concern for a new language learner, then an app might be a significantly more practical way to start learning a language.


What are the cons of language learning apps?


No feedback from teachers or human interaction

In a language class, you can get feedback from your teacher and specific solutions to problems you might be facing when learning a language. When it comes to learning a language thorugh an app, there isn’t the same chance for feedback which greatly inhibit your ability to learn consistently and efficiently. Unlike a teacher, when a learner gets a question wrong on a language learning app, the app will inform only the learner that they have answered a question wrong, but not specifically why their answer is wrong.


Switching apps for books, music, or TV when learning a new language

It might sound strange, but another potentially more efficient way to learn a language is through consuming media in another language, acquiring language skills through a comprehensible input. According to the linguistic Stephen Krashen, when a language learner is exposed to comprehensible input (reading, listening, or viewing material), they understand the meaning of what is being said, rather than focusing on structure or grammar. However, Krashen argued that the material you read, view, or listen must be compelling to the language learner, referring to students who made improvements in learning Mandarin after finding stories they wanted to read in the language. When it comes to app-based learning, it’s possible that a language learner might be provided with content they aren’t interest in, and subsequently lose interest in learning the language at all.


No interaction with native speakers

Language learning apps don’t provide the opportunity to talk to someone who is a native speaker of a language. Bernhard Niesner, the founder of one of the most popular language learning apps, Busuu, admitted that “the best way to learn a language is to be in the country, and be fully able to speak with native speakers”. Unlike an app, talking to a native speaker of a language can help a language learner to practise their accent and pronunciation by listening to the native speaker, and listening to the specific way that they pronounce words in a way that can’t be replicated with an app. This process, known as “shadowing” uses repetition, by getting the language earner to repeat what the native speaker is saying, which could potentially help improve one’s fluency, by reinforcing the speech patterns and pauses in the way a native speaker communicates.


Completely dependent on the internet

Many language learning apps are connected to stable servers, which are very unlikely to go down suddenly. However, if your home Wi-Fi internet connection crashes, your experience with using an app might be greatly affected. Moreover, if you have poor internet connection in your home in the first place, you might not be able to consider using language learning apps at all.


Concluding Thoughts

There are some obvious benefits to language learning via an app, such as the lack of time constraints, flexibility, and the vast difference in price between teacher-based classes and subscribing to the premium version of a language learning app. If you are choosing to learn over a long period of time, or just to learn a few language basics then app-based learning might be preferable. However, learning a language through an app won’t provide the same person-to-person interaction that comes with classes, or talking to a native speaker, and will be unable to provide the same immersion that comes with consuming media in a foreign language.

The Turkic Languages: What Are Their Similarities and Differences?

The Turkic Languages: What Are Their Similarities and Differences?

The Turkic language family, a part of the Altaic language family, consists of 23 different languages, spoken by close to 200 million people, throughout Eastern Europe, Southern Europe, as well as many Asian regions. The earliest written example of the Turkic language were inscriptions found in Mongolia, near the Orhon River, dating from the 8th century, written in Old Turkic. Six Turkic languages have been officially recognised as the official language of their country (Azerbaijani, Kazakh, Turkmen, Uzbek, Turkish, Kyrgyz).

The different Turkic languages can be categorised by their geographic location into six different groups: Oghuz (Southwestern), Kipchak (Northwestern), Karluk (Southeastern), Siberian (Northeastern), Oghur and Arghu. Some of the languages spoken most prominently in the six different groups are Turkish, Turkmen, Azeri (Oghuz), Tatar and Kazakh (Kipchak), Uzbek and Uyghur (Karluk), and Yakut (Siberian).



There are numerous similarities between the Turkic languages. Most of the Turkic languages have a shared vocabulary, phonology, morphology, and syntax. One such illustration of the similarities between the Turkic languages is their similar vowel harmony. Turkish and Azeri vowels, to give an example, consist of a,e,ı,i,o,ö,u,ü (Turkish) and a,e,é,ı,i,o,ö,u,ü (Azeri).

Regarding syntax, all the Turkic languages use the SOV (subject-object-verb) word order, however if an adjective is used to describe a noun, it precedes the noun in the order of the sentence. For example, the Turkish proverb “Ağır kazan geç kaynar” (“the heavy cauldron takes longer to boil”, meaning “great things are done slowly”) ends with the verb “kaynamak” (to boil) and begins with the adjective “ağır” (heavy) followed by the subject of the sentence “kazan” (kettle). The translation of this proverb in other Turkic languages, like Azeri, Turkmen or Kazakh, follows the same word order rule: “Ağır qazan gec qaynayar” (Azeri), “Agyr gazan gic gaýnar” (Turkmen), “Awur qazan keş qaynaydi” (Kazakh).

Turkic languages are also agglutinative languages. This means that some words in the Turkic languages are formed through the morphological process of agglutination through which different words are combined to express a single meaning. In the Uzbek language, one might hear or see an agglutination like “tushunyapsizmi”, which translated to English literally means “understanding-you-do-?”, or “Do you understand?”. The compound phrase “tushun-yap-siz-mi” is formed by the combination of the morpheme “yap” (“-ing”), the verb stem “tushun-“ (to understand”), the singular  informal pronoun “siz” (“you” ) and the question mark, “mi”.

Another good example of the shared similarities between the Turkic languages is their shared vocabulary. For example, this can be observed in the words for the numbers one to five in the Turkic languages:

Azerbaijani: bir, iki, üç, dörd, beş

Kazakh: bir, yeki, üsh, tort, bes

Kyrgyz: bir, iki, üch, tort, besh

Turkish: bir, iki, üç, dört, beş

Turkmen: bir, iki, uch, dört, besh

Uzbek: bit, ikki, uch, tort, besh



A primary example of the differences between the Turkic languages is the script and alphabets the languages use. Over the course of time, the scripts, or alphabet, used for the Turkic languages have differed. For instance, after many countries in which the Turkic languages were spoken became adopted Islam as their primary religion, the Arabic script was utilised by all Turkic-speaking people.

However, when many Turkic speaking countries became part of the Soviet Union in the 1920s, the Soviet government pursued a policy of Latinisation of the Soviet countries. This led to the introduction of the New Turkic Alphabet, which was used for a period during the 1920s and the 1930s, in the non-Slavic regions of the USSR, such as Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan, and Kazakhstan. By 1936, as part of the new Constitution of the Soviet Union, the Cyrillic alphabet was instead made the official alphabet of the Turkic languages, replacing the Latinised alphabet.

The Turkish language also underwent many different alterations as part of the reforms introduced by Kemal Atatürk, the first President of Turkey. Starting in 1928, the Turkish script, influenced by Persian and Arabic, was latinised and replaced with a new Latin alphabet which now constitutes the Modern Turkish language. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, some of the former Soviet countries such as Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, and Turkmenistan have used the Latinised Turkish alphabet as the basis for the Latinisation of their languages.

The Oghuz, Karluk and Kipchak languages, such as those spoken in Turkey, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, and Kazakhstan, all utilise a Latin script. Nonetheless, there are variations in the different scripts used within the different language groups. In the Oghuz group, the Azerbaijani language uses a Perso-Arabic alphabet instead of Latin. Moreover, in the Kipchak group, the Kyrgyz language uses the Cyrillic alphabet. Contrastingly, the Siberian Turkic languages, which are mainly spoken in Russia, use the Cyrillic alphabet.

Another example of the differences between the Turkic languages is the distinction between Common Turkic and Bulgar Turkic. The Common Turkic languages are those spoken by the majority of the Turkic language speaking population. However, around 1.4 million people in the Volga region of Russia speak a language known as Chuvash, the only surviving language from the Oghur branch of the Turkic languages. The Chuvash language uses a Cyrillic script, like Kyrgyz and the Siberian Turkic languages, but is classified as a ‘r’ language, whilst the Common Turkic languages are ‘z’ languages. This is the result of a linguistic phenomenon called rhotacism, which changes the speech sound from ‘z’ to ‘r’. Consequently, the letter ‘r’ is used for words in the Chuvash language, which in languages like Turkish use the letter z instead. For example, the Chuvash word for the number nine is “tăxxăr”, and the same word in Turkish is “dokuz”.


In Conclusion

The Turkic languages share some mutual intelligibility through similar vocabulary, a shared syntax order and other phonological similarities, like vowels, but it would be wrong to assume that every Turkic language is the same, especially if you are an interpreter or translator. One should recognise that within each Turkic language there are individual characteristics, such as different scripts, like Arabic, Cyrillic or Latin, or different historical contexts or influences, such as the influence of the USSR on Soviet Turkic languages. If you require translation or interpreting services in any of the Turkic languages, or any other language, you can get a quote here from Crystal Clear Translation.

Romanian and Moldovan – Twins, Sisters, or Cousins?

Romanian and Moldovan – Twins, Sisters, or Cousins?

by Phoebe Harrison

The existence, transformation, and use of language is often a good way to look at the socio-political background of any country or region. This is particularly true when we look to Eastern Europe, where (especially since the dissolution of the Soviet Union) questions of ethnicity, nationality, and language have often been a contentious issue, particularly recently.


The linguistic debate that exists between Romanians and Moldovans is no exception. The question ‘Are Romanian and Moldovan the same language?’ will get you a range of different answers, depending on who you ask.


The Romanian government, and indeed many Romanians, consider Moldovan and Romanian to be one and the same. At the same time, many Moldovans recognise ‘Moldovan’ as a separate language, particularly in the break-away region of Transnistria, where the language spoken is uniformly referred to by this name.


In truth, Moldovan is a ‘breakaway’ branch of Daco-Romanian, the name given to the standard, most widely spoken dialect of Romanian (distinguishing it from dialects spoken in North Macedonia, Greece, Albania, and parts of Bulgaria, known broadly as Aroromanian, Megleno-Romanian, and Istro-Romanian).


So, are Romanian and Moldovan the same language? The short answer is ‘sort of’. To understand the differences and similarities between the two linguistic entities, it is necessary to look at the history of both Romania and Moldova to understand how such a dilemma came to be.


Pre-20th century

Before the First World War and the establishment of the Soviet Union, the issue of whether Romanians and Moldovans formed a single ethnic group was up for debate. Some scholars argued that Moldovan peasants had experienced a different political environment and missed the development and spread of a pan-Romanian political and national consciousness. Therefore, the Moldovan identity, and therefore the type of language they spoke, already felt quite separate even prior to the Soviet Union.


The Soviet Period

The idea of distinction between the two languages was reinforced under the Soviet government (Moldova was under Soviet control from 1924-1991, and Romania from 1944-1989), with the state emphasizing differences between the Romanian and Moldovan people, despite the similarity of the languages they spoke. One major difference between the two languages was that Romanian was (and still is) written using the Latin script, while Moldovan (known back then as ‘Moldavian’) was written in the Cyrillic script, which furthered the idea of the Moldovan language’s separate identity.



Post-Independence and Modern Day

Since the fall of the Soviet Union and the independence of both Romanian and Moldova, there has been some back and forth in terms of policy and public opinion when it comes to the question whether the two languages are actually just one language. In 1989, Moldovan largely began to use the Latin script again, tying it closer to Romanian. In 1991, Moldova’s Declaration of Independence used the term ‘Romanian’ to describe the language spoken in the country. However, the 1994 Constitution declared ‘Moldovan’ as the country’s official language. Then, in 2003, the Moldovan government adopted a law that considered ‘Romanian’ and ‘Moldovan’ as glottonyms of the same language (i.e that Romanian and Moldovan are just different names for the same entity). In an attempt to ‘seal the deal’,

in December 2013 the Constitutional Court of Moldova ruled that the Declaration of Independence takes precedence over the Constitution and that the state language should, in fact, be called Romanian.

This constant linguistic tug of war was far from over in 2013, however – in 2017, the presidential website under Igor Dodon saw the Romanian language option changed to Moldovan, to be ‘in accordance with the constitution’. This was reversed on the 24th December 2020, the day Maia Sandu assumed office.


As we can see, the issue is ongoing, at least politically – but what do the Moldovan people themselves think? In short, they are also divided.


In a 2004 census, 16.5% (558,508) of the 3,383,332 people living in Moldova stated Romanian as their native language, whereas 60% of respondents declared it was Moldovan. Interestingly, most of the former group resided in more urban and metropolitan areas, while those in the latter group were from more rural regions within the country. More recently, the 2014 census showed that 54% of Moldovans call their language Moldovenească (Moldovan), while 24% refer to it as Română (Romanian).


There is also the issue of Transnistria, the aforementioned unrecognised breakaway state within the Moldova region. Here, Moldovan is recognised as an official language, alongside Russian and Ukrainian – this region has also reverted to the use of the Cyrillic script. Because of this, there are some who argue that ‘Moldovan’ has ties to Russia and the Russian language, and as a result, many reject the term in order to reject Russian influence on Moldova and Romania.


Despite this concern, the general consensus seems to show that there is still an active desire by a majority for Moldovan to be recognised as separate from Romanian, regardless of how linguistically similar they may be. Only time will tell how this desire plays out.


Concluding Thoughts

Though it is true that Romanian and Moldovan are hugely mutually intelligible, with the main differences between the two lying in pronunciation and certain nouns and expressions, one thing is markedly clear – the desire and effort to either homogenise or seperate the two entities is mostly a political, not linguistic, issue. Therefore, the answer to the question of whether they are the same or not is mostly a question of personal views and preferences.

Multilingualism and Employment – Jobs Ideal for Polyglots

Multilingualism and Employment – Jobs Ideal for Polyglots

By Phoebe Harrison

Though everyone has a different reason for learning another language, many people choose to do so for job purposes. This is not unsensible, as it is a universally acknowledged truth that having more than one language under the belt makes any CV ten times more attractive to potential employers, giving multilingual people that much-needed edge in a crowded job-hunting market. If you fall into the category of ‘bilingual people considering their job options’, then this list will hopefully enlighten you as to what choices you have, career-wise.



Perhaps the most obvious job on the list, working as a translator involves translating one written language into the other while retaining the meaning and tone of the original text. A diverse career, translation work can be found in across many sectors, such as marketing, science, and entertainment. Though a great deal of translation work is freelance, there are many positions that require more long-term contract-based roles, especially if working in localisation or legal circles.



Though officially a degree or equivalent certificate is not always required to be a translator (fluency and the ability to write in the target language is enough), having certain qualifications will increase your chances of finding work. Some common qualifications/degrees include:

  • Modern Languages Degree
  • Translation Studies or a Postgraduate Degree in Translation
  • Business, Law, or Science Degrees alongside Languages
  • CIOL Level 7 Diploma of Translation

If you have none of the above, it is still possible to gain relevant experience through volunteering translation services with organisations like Translators Without Borders, or simply providing a portfolio of any relevant past translation work.


Salary and Working Hours

If working as a freelance translator, your hours will be flexible and will largely suit you and your schedule, but it is necessary to be able to keep up with deadlines. Working as an in-house translator will normally entail a standard 9-5 workday.

Because of the nature of the job, translator salaries vary massively. Freelance rates are usually determined based on the word count of the translations provided as well as document type – more experienced freelancers will be able to set higher rates. Depending on your experience and what material you are translating as an ‘in house’ translator, you could be paid very well or a very basic fee – dealing with important documents (such as medical and legal items) or translating from ‘rarer’ languages will usually warrant higher rates of pay.



The ‘spoken’ side of translation, interpretation is the process of listening to, understanding, and memorising content in one language and then reproducing it in another. There are different types of interpreting jobs: conference, business, and public service. Though more consistent than written translation, the majority of interpreting roles are usually also freelance in nature.



Though having any proven experience of interpreting work is a bonus, most employers will prefer candidates with formal qualifications, as interpretation jobs often require industry specific knowledge – instruction in interpreting will often cover different areas, such as medical and legal translation. Some of the main interpreting degrees and diplomas include:

  • Modern Languages Degree
  • Postgraduate Interpreting/Translation Studies
  • Diploma in Public Service Interpreting (DPSI)


Salary and Working Hours

As with translation, interpretation salaries and working hours vary depending on the content you are interpreting, the company you are working for, and your level of experience. Freelance hours are flexible and most ‘in house’ jobs will usually adhere to standard business hours, However, interpreting positions related to medical care or police procedures will often require the translator to be available on demand regardless of the hour.

Salary also changes depending on your status and experience – experienced freelancers can set higher rates that correspond with minutes spent interpreting. Working environments like large-scale conferences will often pay better, and the higher paying interpreting jobs are more readily available in the private sector and abroad.


Teacher (MFL or EFL)

A popular (and very stable) job choice amongst language graduates, teaching a foreign language from a secondary level onwards is a very rewarding job that pays comparatively well. Alternatively, you may also choose to teach English as a foreign language (EFL) while abroad in a country where your other language is spoken – there are many schemes that allow this, such as British Council and TEFL.




To work as a secondary school teacher in England and Wales, it is necessary to acquire Qualified Teacher Status (QTS) by completing Teacher Training – it is uncommon that a school will accept anyone without QTS. It is also obligatory to have a degree in Modern Languages or at least fluency, in some cases. The two main ways of acquiring teacher status are:

  • Postgraduate Certificate in Education (PGCE)
  • Salaried Teacher Training (Teach First, School Direct etc.)

Qualifications for working as a teacher abroad will vary depending on country but working via a British-led scheme will require either a degree in your chosen language or a certificate of different levels of fluency.


Salary and Working Hours

Newly qualified teachers will earn around £25, 714, which will rise in increments. Experienced teachers can move up in the role and increase their pay, with principal teacher and head teacher roles paying up to £100,000 per year.

Most teachers work 39 weeks a year with paid holidays. The average workday may vary slightly depending on the school, but general teaching hours range from 8:30am to 3:30/4:00 pm. It is worth noting that most teachers stay behind after teaching is finished to complete other duties such as marking work or syllabus preparation.



A role taking many different forms, consultants are required to offer advice and expertise to organisations to help them improve their overall performance in terms of management, profitability, strategy, and operations. As most large businesses operate with the international market in mind, potential employees with a knowledge of foreign languages and cultures are seen as an important asset to have.



Most consultancy careers are only open to graduates (of any subject), but school leavers with proven prior experience in business may also often be eligible. Though many types of work experience are attractive, having prior involvement in internships or business courses is a bonus for anyone considering a career in consultancy – for linguists, any occasion of having worked abroad in any company will look particularly promising.


Salary and Working Hours

Depending on your position of seniority, consultants can end up earning more than £120,000 annually with high-end roles, but an average junior salary is between £25-30,000.

Consultant working hours can often be long and demanding, regularly moving outside of the standard 9-5 rota – these hours will often change depending on which project you are working on.

Humanitarian/Aid Worker

A challenging but rewarding endeavour, having knowledge of a foreign language may make you an ideal candidate for humanitarian work. Because many humanitarian organisations work on an international scale, recruiters actively seek out those with the ability to speak the languages of countries that are in need.



Degrees are not obligatory, but are preferred, particularly in anything relating to international development. Employers in international aid and development also value prior relevant work experience which can include volunteering with charities, fundraising, and marketing. From a language viewpoint, there are many organisations, such as Translators Without Borders, who are ideal for language-related volunteer work in this sector.


Salary and Working Hours

Typical starter salaries with UK-based NGOs start around £18-25,000 per year depending on location and experience. Overseas positions will pay slightly higher, ranging from £21-37,000 a year, with salary dependent on specific responsibilities and base country.

Working hours for overseas positions are impossible to predict, especially when working in response to emergencies. More business-related roles based in the UK will most likely adhere to general 9-5 working hours.



A hugely diverse industry, working in marketing or public relations means co-ordinating promotional campaigns and strategies to help sell company products and services, as well as engaging with the public to improve the company’s image and reputation. Because multilingual people and language graduates in general are likely to have an interest or at least, an awareness, of foreign markets and cultures, many organisations actively seek these groups out in order to help orchestrate business on an international scale in helping to organise foreign business campaigns.



As with most large corporations, employment opportunities are open to anyone with a degree or prior relevant experience, in some cases. However, it is useful to have some knowledge or involvement in advertising, communications, or design.


Salary and Working Hours

The starting salary for most marketing related jobs is around £18-25,000 per year depending on experience. After gaining more experience it is possible to move to a more senior role, with pay ranging from anywhere between £40 – 100,000 per year, the latter figure being common amongst those in director roles.

Typical working hours are 9-5 from Monday to Friday, though it is highly likely that employees will be required to work some evenings or weekends when organising events or high-scale marketing campaigns.



Concluding Thoughts

This list provides a general glimpse at the opportunities available to anyone with knowledge of a foreign language, but there is a plethora of other roles out there that will benefit from the skills gained by learning another language, such as cultural sensitivity, communication skills, and an eye for accuracy and detail.

If you or anyone you know requires translation or interpretation services in any language, visit us here at Crystal Clear Translation for a quote.

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